The Achaemenid Empire also called the First Persian Empire was an ancient Iranian empire founded by Cyrus the Great. Ranging at its greatest extent from the Balkans and Eastern Europe proper in the west to the Indus Valley in the east.
It was larger than any previous empire in history, spanning 5.5 million square kilometers (2.1 million square miles). Incorporating various peoples of different origins and faiths. Alexander the Great conquered most of the empire by 330 BC.
A lot of great kings were born under the Achaemenid dynasty. There were 13 kings during the 220 years of the Achaemenid Empire’s existence. Today we have remains of these royal tombs of great kings who became immortal by their bravery and skills.
Interesting Reading: Battle of Ten Kings: Dasharagya Yuddha from Rigveda [4000 B.C]
|Cyrus I||600–580 BC|
|Cyrus the Great||560–530 BC||Battle of Pteria|
Battle of Thymbra
|Darius I||522–486 BC||Battle of Marathon|
|Xerxes I||486–465 BC||Battle of Thermopylae|
|Artaxerxes II||404 to 358 BC|| Battle of Cnidus|
Battle of Cunaxa
Gur-e-Dokhtar – Cyrus I
Cyrus I of Persia, was King of Anshan in Persia from c. 600 to 580 BC. Cyrus I of Anshan is the grandfather of Cyrus the Great, also known as Cyrus II and early member of the Achaemenid dynasty.
His tomb is situated in the city of Gur-e-Dokhtar that is located in the Eram district of the city of Dashtestān (Bushehr region).
This ancient building is a rectangular stone mausoleum in the style of that of Cyrus the Great in Pasargad (Fars region) but smaller and with a roof similar to the tomb of this king.
The entire building was constructed with 24 pieces of stone of different sizes connected together by means of fittings. No type of mortar was used in the building.
The true height of the building is Xnumx meters and a half and inside the room, there is a small tub. It has an entrance door the size of 4 × 9 cm
Cyrus the Great – Pasargadae
Cyrus II of Persia 600 – 530 BC commonly known as Cyrus the Great was the founder of the Achaemenid Empire, the first Persian Empire, probably the most successful emperor in the Achaemenid empire. Under his rule, the empire embraced all the previous civilized states of the ancient Near East expanded vastly and eventually conquered most of Western Asia and much of Central Asia. Cyrus the Great created the largest empire the world had yet seen.
The Tomb of Cyrus is approximately 1 km southwest of the palaces of Pasargadae. Pasargadae was founded in the 6th century BCE as the first capital of the Achaemenid Empire by Cyrus the Great, near the site of his victory over the Median king Astyages in 550 BCE. According to Greek sources, it dates back to 559–529 BC. The most extensive description based on a lost account by Aristobulus, who had accompanied Alexander the Great on his eastern campaign in the late 4th century BC, is to be found in the Anabasis of Arrian written in the 2nd century AD.
As per second century AD records of Arrian’s, when Alexander looted and destroyed Persepolis, Alexander commanded Aristobulus, one of his warriors, to enter the monument. Inside he found a golden bed, a table set with drinking vessels, a gold coffin, some ornaments studded with precious stones, and an inscription on the tomb.
Naqsh-e_Rostam – Darius the Great
Darius I c. 550–486 BCE, commonly known as Darius the Great, was the third Persian King of Kings of the Achaemenid Empire, reigning from 522 BCE until his death in 486 BCE. He ruled the empire at its peak when it included much of West Asia, parts, Central Asia, as far as the Indus Valley in the far east and portions of north and northeast Africa including Egypt (Mudrâya), eastern Libya, and coastal Sudan.
It was the farsightedness of Darius the great that today we could able to decipher the ancient scripting language. He created the relief with three different scripts belong to a different timeline. This relief is known as Behistun Inscription. A Rosetta stone to decipher the cuneiform script used in clay tablets.
The tomb of Darius the Great is situated in Naqsh-e Rostam an ancient necropolis located about 12 km northwest of Persepolis, in Fars Province, Iran, and it is the considerable high from the ground. His tomb is explicitly identified by an accompanying inscription to be the tomb of Darius I.
An inscription by Darius I, from c. 490 BC, generally referred to as the “DNa inscription” (Darius Naqsh-i Rostam inscription a) in scholarly works, appears in the top left corner of the facade of his tomb. It mentions the conquests of Darius I and his various achievements during his life. Its exact date is not known, but it can be assumed to be from the last decade of his reign.
During the revolt which spurred in Egypt in 486 BC due to heavy taxes and the deportation of craftsmen to build the royal palaces at Susa and Persepolis, Darius decided to leave to Egypt (487–486 BC) to suppress the rebolt. During this time he decided to prepare his tomb at Naqsh-e Rustam (five kilometers from his royal palace at Persepolis). However, Darius could not lead the campaign due to his failing health and died in October 486 BC at the age of 64.
Naqsh-e-Rostam – Xerxes 1
Xerxes I 518 – August 465 BC, commonly known as Xerxes the Great, was the fourth King of Kings of the Achaemenid Empire, ruling from 486 to 465 BC. He was the son and successor of Darius the Great. Xerxes was crowned and succeeded his father in October–December 486 BC when he was about 36 years old. He ruled from 486 BC until his assassination in 465 BC at the hands of Artabanus, the commander of the royal bodyguard.
The nationalities mentioned in the DNa inscription are also depicted on the upper registers of all the Tombs at Naqsh-e Rostam. It is one of the best-preserved Persian tombs.
Persian could successfully invade Greek in the reign of Xerxes the Great after the winning the Battle of Plataea in 479 BC near the city of Plataea in Boeotia that was fought between an alliance of the Greek city-states (including Sparta, Athens, Corinth, and Megara), and the Persian Empire of Xerxes I. It is the same battle shown in the famous Hollywood movie 300.
Persepolis – Artaxerxes III
Artaxerxes II Mnemon of Persia from 404 BC until his death in 358 BC. Greek authors gave him the epithet “Mnemon”, meaning “remembering; having a good memory”. He had the longest reign of 47 years in all the Persian emperors.
During his reign, the Achaemenids, allied with Athens, managed to utterly destroy the Spartan fleet at the Battle of Cnidus (394 BC).
Artaxerxes II was also remembered for his works to restore monuments of his predecessors. His largest restoration was that of the Palace of Darius in Susa.
The tomb of Artaxerxes II is located at Persepolis and was built on the model of his predecessors at Naqsh-e Rustam. On the upper register of the tomb appear reliefs of the Emperor, supported by the soldiers of all ethnicities of the Empire. On the lintel over each figure appears a trilingual inscription describing each ethnicity.
A great empire made by these kings which were the largest empire of its time. Certainly, each king fought many battles in this lifetime to expand his region and power. Persian kings ruled a great part of the world for more than 200 years.